# Free Digital Painting Resources

http://www.ctrlpaint.com/
http://sakimichan.blogspot.ca/2011/04/eye-references.html (not bad references for eyes)
http://robaato.deviantart.com/gallery/34285302 (A collection of tutorials for digital painting especially cell shading and comics/ very stylized though)
http://browse.deviantart.com/resources/tutorials/digiart/dpadigi/corelpainter/#/d45trc7 (a collection of corel painter tutorials)
http://conceptart.org/forums/showthread.php?233782-Lane-s-Sketchbook/page7 (this ones cool this guy posts animated frame by frames of his works so you see exactly how he did each piece.)

# VP 2

1953, Robert Rauschenberg “Erased De Kooning Drawing”
“My choices consist in choosing what questions to ask”

Cage: Mushroom Haiku/Lecture on Nothing
Cage: Norton Lectures
What is a concept?
What makes something art?

What functions can art have?
Smithson/Holt “Swamp”
Smithson, Hotel Palenque
(Text and Video, video is bootleg though, not original quality. obviously)

John Baldassari, I Will Not Make Any More Boring Art
Sentences on Conceptual Art (1968)
Sol Lewitt

1) Conceptual Artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach.
2) Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.
3) Illogical judgments lead to new experience.
4) Formal art is essentially rational.
5) Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically.
6) If the artist changes his mind midway through the execution of the piece he compromises the result and repeats past results.
7) The artist’s will is secondary to the process he initiates from idea to completion. His willfulness may only be ego.
8) When words such as painting and sculpture are used, they connote a whole tradition and imply a consequent acceptance of this tradition, thus placing limitations on the artist who would be reluctant to make art that goes beyond the limitations.
9) The concept and idea are different. The former implies a general direction while the latter is the component. Ideas implement the concept.
10) Ideas alone can be works of art; they are in a chain of development that may eventually find some form. All ideas need not be made physical.
11) Ideas do not necessarily proceed in logical order. They may set one off in unexpected directions but an idea must necessarily be completed in the mind before the next one is formed.
12) For each work of art that becomes physical there are many variations that do not.
13) A work of art may be understood as a conductor from the artists’ mind to the viewers. But it may never reach the viewer, or it may never leave the artists’ mind.
14) The words of one artist to another may induce a chain of ideas, if they share the same concept.
15) Since no form is intrinsically superior to another, the artist may use any form, from an expression of words (written or spoken) to physical reality, equally.
16) If words are used, and they proceed from ideas about art, then they are art and not literature, numbers are not mathematics.
17) All ideas are art if they are concerned with art and fall within the conventions of art.
18) One usually understands the art of the past by applying the conventions of the present thus misunderstanding the art of the past.
19) The conventions of art are altered by works of art.
20) Successful art changes our understanding of the conventions by altering our perceptions.
21) Perception of ideas leads to new ideas.
22) The artist cannot imagine his art, and cannot perceive it until it is complete.
23) One artist may misperceive (understand it differently from the artist) a work of art but still be set off in his own chain of thought by that misconstruing.
24) Perception is subjective.
25) The artist may not necessarily understand his own art. His perception is neither better nor worse than that of others.
26) An artist may perceive the art of others better than his own.
27) The concept of a work of art may involve the matter of the piece or the process in which it is made.
28) Once the idea of the piece is established in the artist’s mind and the final form is decided, the process is carried out blindly. There are many side effects that the artist cannot imagine. These may be used as ideas for new works.
29) The process is mechanical and should not be tampered with. It should run its course.
30) There are many elements involved in a work of art. The most important are the most obvious.
31) If an artist uses the same form in a group of works and changes the material, one would assume the artist’s concept involved the material.
32) Banal ideas cannot be rescued by beautiful execution.
33) It is difficult to bungle a good idea.
34) When an artist learns his craft too well he makes slick art.
35) These sentences comment on art, but are not ar </p> NOTES

Chris Burden, 1972,Shoot

Josef Beuys, 1974 I Like America and America Likes Me

Vito Acconci, Following Piece

and Seedbed

Bruce Nauman “Walking Around the Studio in an Exaggerated Manner”

Orlan

Yoko Ono Cut Piece

Yves Klein Anthropometry of the Blue Epoch

Allan Kaprow, Yard, Happening(s)

Philosophical Theory and Sources.

Existentialism: Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Franz Kafka, Søren Kierkegaard,Friedrich Nietzsche

Structuralism: Ferdinand de Saussure (pre-structuralist linguist, Prague and Moscow Schools of Linguistics along with Jakobson), Roman Jakobson (linguist), Claude Levi-Strauss (anthropologist), Jacques Lacan (psychoanalyst), Michel Foucault (historian), Roland Barthes (literary critic), Maurice Merleau-Ponty (phenomenoligist),Louis Althusser (Marxist theory)

A Splattering of Vanity

Surrealism:Impressions de la Haute Mongolie-Hommage a Raymond Roussel

Modernism

Performance/ Body Art (a brief history) contains graphic content, beware

Situationist International

Vienna Aktionists also highly graphic and violent

Systems Art

The Feminist Film Movement

*I Love America and America Loves Me

Dennis Oppenheim

Smithson/Holt “Swamp”
Smithson, Hotel Palenque
(Text and Video, video is bootleg though, not original quality. obviously)

Hans Haacke:
Real Time Social System
and experimental structures

Yvonne Rainer, a movement in herself

did anyone notice how many of these people find their roots in modern music practice???

see Time lecture above and check out
Pauline Oliveros

along with La Monte Young, John Cage, Yoko Ono, Nam June Paik, and Fluxus in general (if you haven’t already)
how many ways are these people related? who else was hanging around?

(Bas Jan Alder, I’m Too Sad To Tell You)
Yves Klein, Leap into the Void
Keith Boadwee, Leap Into the Yard

Time, Procedure, and Notation

Jackson Mac Lowe, sound poet

The Black Tarantula Crossword Gathas

Notation…

listen

previous to Beethoven’s time (1770-1827) people notated music without volume and articulation indications:

specificity, as an issue for communication

Earle Brown, Composer

Laban Notation for Human Movement

Cornelius Cardew, Composer, Designer, Critic

(new version)

AMM

movement, time, concept, relationship

Ludo Mich, outlaw

What Does the Word “Rhythm” Mean?

What is TIME?

and how does it move?
is it a line? a circle?

and what is it used for?

and how is this movement perceived?

and to what extent are time’s movements universal,
or to what extent are they our own personal,
or our various cultures’ constructions
and how does this affect our art making?

how can the light recorded on the photographic plate during an exposure be considered a record of time?

Is it possible to relate our personal frames of reference
with respect to time,
with the vast orders of magnitude existing across time and space?

## Seconds

Orders of magnitude (time)
Factor (s) Multiple Symbol Definition Comparative examples & common units Orders of magnitude
10−44 tP Planck time is the unit of time of the natural units system known as Planck units. Planck time = $\sqrt{\hbar G/c^5}\approx 5.4 \times 10^{-44} \text{ s}$. 10−44 s
10−24 1 yoctosecond ys[1] Yoctosecond, (yocto- + second), is one quadrillionth (in the long scale) or one septillionth (in the short scale) of a second. 0.3 ys: mean life of the W and Z bosons.[2][3][a]
0.5 ys: time for top quark decay, according to the Standard Model.
1 ys: time taken for a quark to emit a gluon.
23 ys: half-life of 7H.
1 ys and less, 10 ys, 100 ys
10−21 1 zeptosecond zs Zeptosecond, (zepto- + second), is one sextillionth of one second (short scale). 7 zs: half-life of helium-9’s outer neutron in the second nuclear halo.
17 zs: approximate period of electromagnetic radiation at the boundary between gamma rays and X-rays.
300 zs: approximate typical cycle time of X-rays, on the boundary between hard and soft X-rays.
500 zs: current resolution of tools used to measure speed of chemical bonding[4]
1 zs, 10 zs, 100 zs
10−18 1 attosecond as 12 attoseconds: shortest measured period of time.[5] 1 as, 10 as, 100 as
10−15 1 femtosecond fs cycle time for 390 nanometre light, transition from visible light to ultraviolet 1 fs, 10 fs, 100 fs
10−12 1 picosecond ps 1 ps: half-life of a bottom quark
4 ps: Time to execute one machine cycle by an IBM Silicon-Germanium transistor
1 ps, 10 ps, 100 ps
10−9 1 nanosecond ns 1 ns: Time to execute one machine cycle by a 1GHz microprocessor
1 ns: Light travels 12 inches (30 cm)
1 ns, 10 ns, 100 ns
10−6 1 microsecond µs sometimes also abbreviated µsec
1 µs: Time to execute one machine cycle by an Intel 80186 microprocessor
4–16 µs: Time to execute one machine cycle by a 1960s minicomputer
1 µs, 10 µs, 100 µs
10−3 1 millisecond ms 4–8 ms: typical seek time for a computer hard disk
50–80 ms: Blink of an eye
150–300 ms: Human reflex response to visual stimuli
1 ms, 10 ms, 100 ms
10−2 1 centisecond cs
100 1 second s 1 s: 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom.[6]
60 s: 1 minute
1 s, 10 s, 100 s
103 1 kilosecond
(16.7 minutes)
ks 3.6 ks: 3600 s or 1 hour
86.4 ks: 86 400 s or 1 day
604.8 ks: 1 week
103 s, 104 s, 105 s
106 1 megasecond
(11.6 days)
Ms month = 2.6 x 106 s
year = 31.6 Ms = 107.50 s
106 s, 107 s, 108 s
109 1 gigasecond
(32 years)
Gs century = 3.16 Gs ≈ 3.16 × 109 s
millennium = 31.6 Gs ≈ 3.16 × 1010 s
109 s, 1010 s, 1011 s
1012 1 terasecond
(32 000 years)
Ts eon = 31.6 Ts ≈ 3.16 × 1013 s 1012 s, 1013 s, 1014 s
1015 1 petasecond
(32 million years)
Ps aeon = 31.6 Ps ≈ 3.16 × 1016 s 1015 s, 1016 s, 1017 s
1018 1 exasecond
(32 billion years)
Es 0.43 Es ≈ the approximate age of the Universe 1018 s, 1019 s, 1020 s
1021 1 zettasecond
(32 trillion years)
Zs 1021 s, 1022 s, 1023 s
1024 1 yottasecond
Ys 1024 s, 1025 s, 1026 s and more
Years
Orders of magnitude (time)
Factor (a) Multiple common units orders of magnitude
10−50 Planck time, the shortest physically meaningful interval of time ≈ 1.71 × 10−50 a 10−50 a
10−24 1 yoctoannum 1 ya and less, 10 ya, 100 ya
10−21 1 zeptoannum 1 za, 10 za, 100 za
10−18 1 attoannum 1 aa, 10 aa, 100 aa
10−15 1 femtoannum 1 fa, 10 fa, 100 fa
10−12 1 picoannum 1 pa, 10 pa, 100 pa
10−9 1 nanoannum 1 second = 3.17 × 10-8 a ≈ 10-7.50 a 1 na, 10 na, 100 na
10−6 1 microannum 1 minute = 1.90 × 10-6 a
1 hour = 1.40 × 10-4 a
1 ua, 10 ua, 100 ua
10−3 1 milliannum 1 day = 2.73 × 10-3 a
1 week = 1.91 × 10-2 a
1 ma, 10 ma, 100 ma
100 1 annum 1 average year = 1 annum (= 365.24219 SI days)
century = 100 anna
1 a, 10 a, 100 a
103 1 kiloannum millennium = 1000 anna 103 a, 104 a, 105 a
106 1 megaannum epoch = 1,000,000 anna 106 a, 107 a, 108 a
109 1 gigaannum aeon = 1,000,000,000 anna
13.7 Ga = 1.37×1010 a ≈ 13.7 billion years, the approximate age of the Universe
109 a, 1010 a, 1011 a
1012 1 teraannum 1012 a, 1013 a, 1014 a
1015 1 petaannum 1015 a, 1016 a, 1017 a
1018 1 exaannum 1018 a, 1019 a, 1020 a
1021 1 zettaannum 1021 a, 1022 a, 1023 a
1024 1 yottaannum 1024 a, 1025 a, 1026 and more

The pages linked in the right-hand column contain lists of times that are of the same order of magnitude (power of ten).

Rows in the table represent increasing powers of a thousand (3 orders of magnitude).

Conversion from year to second is year × 31 557 600 using the Julian year.

Conversion from log10 year to log10 second is approximately log10 year + 7.50. Example conversion; 1 year = 100 year = 100 + 7.50 seconds = 100.50 + 7s = 3.16 * 107s.

(the clock of the long now will keep time on a 10,000 year cycle
this is the first prototype,
and is on exhibit in the London Science Museum…

what art forms organize time?
what use time? and how?

((Here is a film/sound composition
or is it a light/music composition as an example,
but what is it that makes it a composition?
and how is this “composition” articulated
(how is it made, what instructions are used to create it?)
What is being organized in what media?
hint: it has to do with the subject of this seminar))

and what about Change Ringing? How does this ancient practice relate time and space? How does it structure time and why was this method of organizing time developed? What are the relationships here between the time structure created and the materials being employed to create it? How does this relate to Algorithmic Composition?

guide to the church bells of prague (incidental trivia related to the above topic)

# VP test

Please note: Module handbook is located above. The handbook details the submission dates, requirements, and assessment criteria for this module. Also included are the dates for each meeting. Attendance to module meetings is required. Attendance and participation in critiques is directly reflected in your grade.

That being understood, lets proceed to a discussion of:

Eames (see below)

Powers of Ten

Robert Irwin: Primaries and Secondaries

Design Q&A

(above: Ellsworth Kelly, title unknown)

Sol LeWitt, Wall Drawings (algorithmic composition)

Sigmar Polke

(below) paintings:

Richard Long 4 Circles

(at least)

below: Bridget Riley, titles unknown)

# Self Directed Project: Example

Predevelopment & Research
My work for this assignment is actually also a final piece in a series of my previous work, and it is actually their culmination – it is what these previous works were supposed to represent. From the start I wished to create a piece of light-art, but also with a mix of a kinetic scultpure or object. I wished to combine these two elements to create a visual instrument that is interactive.
In this respect, I was influenced largely by the works of Olaffur Eliasson, who although is not
creating very similar object is very stemmed in the experience itself. He works a lot with
geometrical shapes, and the properties of objects themselves. He creates his art by playing with
forms and light in order to create stunning experiences. It is hard to comment on his direct work process though, as he employs a studio full of people who help him complete his amazing works.

I also enjoyed the works of a young american artist, Joshua Kirsch who creates interactive lightart/kinetic objects.

His works, particuarly Concentricity 96 as seen above have inspired me, although the basic shape of my piece was created long ago before I found him. He works with quite advanced mechanics and electronics, standard of which I could not replicate, but anyhow seeing his work I decided that my work should definitely be interactive.
The previous works that this final piece is a culmination of are two objects, one is a small copper jewelry piece, which I call Rotator 1. Its about 10cm in diameter, and it already reflects the basic shape of my future work.

Later, I was able to work with some larger metal plates, and so I decided that I could make my work bigger, perhaps prepare a skeleton for further work. The Rotator 2 already was about 1,25m in diameter and made of cor-ten metal. However the whole structure was too heavy. I would not be able to get it moving, and even if so it would be quite dangerous with this mass of metal

Statement of Intent
In my project I will research several artist and techniques in order to create an object that is both visual and interactive. This piece will be a light/kinetic sculpture with a variety of possible uses – as aninstallation piece/projection area/or a music visualisation. Foremostly
though I like to describe it as a ‘visual instrument’.
It will be made out of wood, I also need a suitable motor and around 3
meters of LED light strips.
The final production will be in the form of photodocumentation and video.

This project has involved a lot of drawing, directly or indirectly. Sketching and drawing were at the center, although it wasn’t usually on paper, but on the woodpieces themselves that would finally be cut.

I enjoyed working on this project a lot because it combined a wide variety of techniques and led me to discover and learn more.

Sketches & Development

Actual Development
I wished for my piece to be interactive and rotating, so I had several
constrains that I need to solve or get around. The first was finding a
suitable motor that would be powerful enough to rotate my piece, yet
not too powerful to work with.
The solution came quite quickly with the discovery of an old washing
machine.

And so, the very first challenge was removing it from the box.

The motor needed to be plugged in! Luckily I was able to configure
the original cord of the washing machine.

And use it to plug the motor into power directly.

With the motor prepared, I now knew how should I continue with my
production. The motor was a primary constraint, as everything would
stem from it. There were several important things that would be built
on it – the rotating power connectors that would power the LED lights
on the ends and a systém of attaching the whole piece. Next came the
basic designing.

First, were the ‘wings’. Their size and shape was calculated to be
exact, and to have about 20cm of space in separation.

In further preparation, the whole shapes was drawn onto a board.

The wings are cut and put into the prepared shape.

Next were the middle pieces that neatly fall into place.

The middle pieces would need to be connected together strongly with
wooden circles and glue.

Adding the central parts to hold the structure.

The rotation is achieved.

Gluing process continues.

In the end only one screw was enough to hold the wings, even when
rotating.

The base is done. Down you can see the two wooden plates that will
hold the structure on the end of the motor with several screws.

Standard and ‘Shuriken’ mode

The most complicated element is probably the power connection. It
will be led through cables that will touch the rotating rod. On the rod
there will be strips of tape that will both hold and insulate two metal
strips. The curved ends of the woodpieces will be filled with wire that
will touch the metal strips. Cables will lead from the metal strips
( under them ) and connect to the added rotating structure, as they
rotate together with the rod.

Time for the paint-job.

Paintjob is done. Next : sticking the LED strips. They already came
with 3M tape on the other side, so they were ready to go.

The connection travels through the wooden pieces through the insulated metal
plates and onwards through cables that rotate with the structure.

The connection travels through the wooden pieces through the insulated metal
plates and onwards through cables that rotate with the structure.

The rotating power connectors are finished.

Time to solder the cables to the LED strips. Only one of the strips had
the cables pre-attached.

The base is finished, time for wiring.

First connection – it is working!

Testing the light intensity.

FINISHED PIECE