The Fine Art Experimental Media program is a three year program which delves into the intersections between new technologies and contemporary art. While you will learn various programs that could prepare you for other professions, the goal of the program is to foster creative individuals who can solve problems and create new and innovative works of art relating to space, interactivity, time, and digital media. The following courses compose the first two years of study in the program, before a final year in the BA which is focused primarily on studio work, conceptual development through critical writing, and an exhibition module.
Courses during the first two years.
Animation Techniques for Interactivity, 2D 3D and Time-Based Digital Applications, Drawing Techniques and Processes, Computer Interface Design Principles, New Technologies in Interactive Media, Interactive Media Design and Prototyping, Interactive Media Web Authoring, Contextual & Cultural Referencing, Audio-Visual Techniques, Professional Practice, Digital Video Post Production & Editing, Sound Production and Editing, Idea Generation and Development, Website Creation and Management, Critical Study, Project Design; Implementation and Evaluation.
Courses for Final BA Year.
Reflective Case Study, Visual Production, Final Exhibition.
So what’s the difference betwen Commercial Art, and Fine Art?
If you are unfamiliar with these courses and concepts, and how they relate to contemporary art making, then you should look at some prominent artists working in the field to gain a better understanding of what types of projects generally encompass this field of study. While there have been many debates about what generally constitutes commercial work, and what is Fine Art the statement can be made that commercial work is generally created for a client, and while someone hired to make a commercial certainly has their own creative vision their end goal is to showcase a company or business. The FAEM program is not focused on creating work for companies, clients or businesses. It’s a Fine Art program.
What Software and Computer Languages which will be studied?
Examples of Experimental Media.
Projection mapping has been around for about 50 years, the goal is to turn almost any surface into a dynamic video display. Software such as Aftereffects, Resolume, and Quartz are used to warp and mask the projected image to make it fit perfectly on irregularly shaped screens. The following video is a good example of what the limits of the medium are, and how the aesthetic of the medium can be used.
Pedro Reyes is a sculptor who works with guns which have been disassembled and then he creates large mechanized instruments from them. In this piece we can see that he revisioned these objects which were once deadly and turned them into something which creates sound. Thereby intersecting the boundaries between sound art, kinetic sculpture, and collage.
Jodi.org took the approach that a website could itself, and that the internet could be seen as a medium much like paint or charcoal. The project was created by two European artists whose goal was to take apart the typical language of the internet, and replace it with an interpretation of data. The site displays remixed versions of found images and html scripts in a way similar to how the dadaists cut up poetry. The project displayed principles inherit in a lot of New Media art which is the fact that it took advantage of emerging technolgies as a vehicle to create new art. For this reason, today when we have different new technologies to play with, they are often the focus of how to create new works of art and devices are often hacked or reconfigured to fit the needs of the artist. The idea that these objects can exist purely as data is one which is common, and often exploited.
Artists also employ a strong element of interactivity into these works as well as we can see in the work of Muti Randolph who created a giant interactive sculpture which would respond and interact with the movements of those who were walking through it. It is common for these artists to employ the use of arduino (a single board controller which intended to make the application of interactive objects or environments more accessible) as well as more familiar items such as Kinect which allows a computer to track someone’s movements and track them.
But artists using New Media is not something only synonymous with the digital age. One can look at the work by Swiss Sculptor Jean Tinguley who is best known for his self destructing sculptures. Many times an emphasis is put on temporary work and the genre blends aspects of performance as well as traditional artistic practices such as sculpture or painting.
Because of the fact that often times the work created was temporary, often the pieces would be videotaped as documentation of the work itself. At the same time the advent of video technology lead to artists also using and exploiting the medium to create works of art. Nam Jun Paik is one of the most well known examples of an artist to explore the incorporation of video into his work. Paik blended elements of sculpture, happenings, video footage, and sound into his installations.
Artists such as Eduardo Kac pushed the boundaries of what it meant to be a biological entity with the creation of his glowing rabbit. This is still a developing field referred to as Transgenetic Art. By extracting a protein found in a certain type of jellyfish, he infused this protein into the DNA of a rabbit and created this living sculpture which would glow when blue light was shined upon it.
The creation of this transgenetic art caused the rabbit to be held inside a lab because of fears that it would try to reproduce if it escaped. Subsequently there was a campaign to Free Alba (The name of the rabbit) which created some public debate about the morality of the project. This debate, according to Kac, also became part of the artwork itself and made it a living public sculpture.
Bas Jan Ader
As you can see, the materials and concepts present in a variety of pieces can vary greatly, however they are all rooted firmly in the history of art and thinking which developed during the 20th century. This timeline can give you a glimpse into the wide variety of influences both art, philosophy, and technological advancements had with one another. [ Click to Enlarge ]
It is important to note that the Fine Art Experimental Media program is not one which is directly geared towards the creation of commercial work, but rather immersive installations which fit into a Fine Art context. This piece by Bill Viola incorporates a variety of media and techniques, including sculpture, video, and sound.
Viola is primarily known for innovative work working with Videos which encompass entire rooms which exhibit an overpowering quality to them. His subjects tend to revolve around issues regarding life, death, and consciousness.
In this sound installation in a forest by Janet Cardif she transforms a natural enviroment into a performance space.
In this piece by Stelarc, we can see that the body itself can be a living sculpture which can be manipulated and used to incorporate elements of technology, dance, performance, robotics, 3d modeling and sculpture.
As you can hopefully see by now, the thrust of the program is not on making car commercials, or animations. All of the programs you learn will simply be used as tools in the creation of art. If you are still uncertain the best possible way to decide your pathway would be to attend either the HND final show, or the BA final show, the visiting artist lecture series, or any of the other events which the program puts on.
Objects in Motion
Personal Experimental Studies
Lecturer : Jeremiah Palecek and Krystof Kriz
Pass Criteria Covered
P1 explore materials, processes
and techniques safely
P2: Record Experimental outcomes
Students should show they can use and explore their materials
and associated processes safely andwith care. They should
recognise and apply relevant health and safety guidelines, and
experiment with materials, techniques and processes to generate
a range of tests, samples, roughs and practical work..
students should demonstrate the ability to record their
experimentation in a clear and methodical
manner. They will record findings on a regular basis and include
all relevant technical information. Recording
can take many forms as appropriate to the process and the
individual learning needs. There will be evidence
of their involvement with the processes. Technical language and
terminology will be used correctly.
Summary of Tasks
Students will have to choose at least two different objects from which they will be making a sculpture, for instance, this could be
something like matches and bottle caps. They will also be assigned an emotion which they must illustrate. Using these two objects
they will make sketches of how to construct 2 characters which will interact in a short stop motion film. A storyboard will also
accompany these sketches. Students will be allowed to use materials to connect their objects together such as wire, string,
chickenwire fence, or rope. [p1] Once the character/sculptures are finished the students will then create an animation which
incorporates both of their objects into a narrative. Once all the footage is shot we will finalize the animations and add sound in
photoshop and premiere. [p2]
Sketchbook (Can Continue using MEAD Sketchbook if you wish)
Experimentation will be carried out during class time. And we will be engaging in a series of
Required Work and Format
You must submit a cd to reception with your scans of all relevant sketchbook pages during the last
3 weeks. The more documentation you have of your experimentation, and research the better. Your
submission must contain every media studied during class. Failure to include documentation of each
medium will result in a failing grade.
As you can see in all of these stop motions, the animator creating them took materials which had qualities of something quite different than what is portrayed. So slabs of meat become two lovers. Paper becomes water dripping. And dollar bills become herbs and spices.
For next class you must bring your materials with which you will be working! That means if you are going to be using bottle caps, matches, and wire then you must bring all of these materials to class to begin construction of your armature. This is a very in depth project which we don’t have a lot of time for so it is important to stay on track as it is very easy to fall behind. You may use any program to animate your objects. The simplest being Flash, or Photoshop or if you want to download a program like Dragon Frame then feel free as well. The important thing to remember is that your armatures must be solid enough to be moved into various positions.
You’re going to have to find a way to get your objects to stick together. This can be done with a variety of materials from using a glue gun, to using glue, to tying pieces together with wire, to using hinges and joints to create functioning arms and legs.
Building of these armatures can obviously get very complex for more extensive projects.
So, what do you need for next class?
1. Your two Objects which will form the majority of your characters which you will be creating.
2. Something to hold these objects together (Glue, wire, gluestick, etc.)
3. Choose one emotion which will be demonstrated by your animation. (see the list below)
4. Storyboards of your stop motion must also be finished as soon as possible ( but we understand it will take some time to construct your characters first)
Today will start with an introduction to the course and the aims which we wish to achieve.
This course introduces students to a wide range of materials, techniques, and concepts
involving traditional painting. Materials to be explored include Watercolor, Acrylic, and Oils. The three different mediums will be used in relation to the first, second, and third weeks of the course. There will be a heavy emphasis on color theory and traditional paint application techniques as well as composition and design. In addition to teaching a variety of materials and techniques each lesson will also introduce the work of one painter whose work will be examined at both a technical, as well as a conceptual level. Students will learn how to work from a sketch to a finished piece in each of the aforementioned media. It should be noted that this is not a class in how to “paint flowers” ( although we do look at nice paintings of flowers ) or which is focused on one specific technique, since we are limited in the amount of time we have the class is designed to give a foundational background in both how to use 3 different media, as well as give the student some solid theory which can be continually practiced during the week, and in the future. The class will focus on achieving the following Learning Outcomes
L01: Demonstrate the ability to understand and apply the basic principles of design and color as well as the strengths inherent in a variety of painting media.
L02: Demonstrate the ability to use a variety of painting techniques and media to achieve specific aesthetic intents.
L03: Evaluate the use of ones own as well as others painting materials and techniques.
L04: A functional knowledge of the evolution of painting traditions, techniques, and conventions.
L05: Demonstrate the ability to apply the skills needed to take a work from concept to finished work.
L06: Demonstrate the ability to synthesize drawing and painting.
Once we’ve covered the overview of what we will be focusing on for the coming weeks we’ll go straight into the basics of color theory. Since we are starting with watercolors lets look at one of the most important aspects as it concerns good watercolor paintings, and that is contrast.
This part’s featured artist is Andrew Wyeth
Andrew Newell Wyeth was a visual artist, primarily a realist painter, working predominantly in a regionalist style. He was one of the best-known U.S. artists of the middle 20th century.
Contrast in Painting
There are many different ways we can depict Contrast in Painting, and because of this, this lesson will need to be split into different parts so we can go into each different type of contrast in depth. But first let’s get into exactly what contrast means.
The dictionary definition is as follows:
Contrast: The state of being strikingly different from something else, typically something in
juxtaposition or close association.
Synonyms: opposition - antithesis - opposite - contradistinction
So I think we all have a pretty good feel of what something is when it is in contrast with an opposing element. But how does this relate to painting and color? In what different ways can we show contrast simply by using different colors?
You may be asking “why is contrast so important?” and the answer is simple. Our eyes love contrast and it is how we make sense of the world. If you want to highlight a certain area of a painting then this is the area which should have the highest amount of contrast. Our eyes are naturally drawn to these areas, and it is easy information for our brains to process. When making a two dimensional representation of the three dimensional world we need to take advantage of how we see, in order to translate this to a believable painting.
Let’s start with Contrast of Hue and what exactly this means.
Contrast of Hue:
This is the simplest of the different types of contrast that painters often use. You should remember that the term Hue just means a color which has not been diluted in any way. It is color in its “purest” form. When we put multiple different colors up against each other we will see a very strong contrast between them. For starters lets look at this painting by Ellsworth Kelley which is a simple illustration of the strength of contrast of hue. He uses the three primary colors in their purest form and paints each individually.
All three of these primary colors are in strict opposition to each other. So much so that there doesn’t seem to be any relation to them at all. Each color stands alone as if it were its own entity altogether. This is what I mean by contrast of hue. So how can we take this out of the square minimalistic boxes and start applying it to more complex compositions? I believe the next painting by Mondrian takes a step in that direction and we can see that not only can we work with these elements as if they stood on their own, but we can also integrate them into a larger composition.
And now let’s take this idea a step further and apply to a composition which has some figural elements as well. In the following painting by Matisse we can see that he used only contrasts in hues, and black and white to create an entire composition that includes both a figure in an environment, but also a small landscape in the window. There are a few other types of contrast occurring in this painting but we’ll get to those later.
When dealing with only Contrast of Hue we can see that many of the paintings take on a youthful or even joyous feeling to them. Which is one reason why many of the Fauvists decided to use these colors to enhance the meaning of their exuberant paintings. But these types of examples of Contrast of Hue aren’t only from the 20th century. Painters have used this rule of painting for hundreds of years to create an atmosphere of intensity. One can look at Raphael’s Adoration of the Magi for an older example of how Contrast of Hue was utilized hundreds of years ago.
Contrast of Value:
This is another rule of color theory which is fairly easy to grasp but which is often ignored. When speaking of the contrast of value we are talking about the lightness vs the darkness of certain colors. The easiest way to illustrate this is to first deal with only black and white as it is the easiest way to see a difference in value. In the video below by EmptyEasel we see a very clear representation of how we can use simple dark and light contrasts to create certain effects which create a more believable depiction of the 3d world on a 2d surface.
In the following drawing by Seurat we can see how a contrast in value achieves similar effects as the video outlined above. Notice how each edge has a sharp contrast in value against the other edges. This pushes certain elements back in space and allows for other elements to come to the forefront. It should be noted however, as stated in the video above, that it isn’t bad to sometimes have your values “bleed” into each other as this causes a composition to have linkages which give it an overall feeling of unity.
Now lets look at another example but this time working with color and the different values that colors have as well. In the following painting by Rembrandt look at how he effectively uses Contrast of Value to bring our eye right to the most important feature of the painting.
Assignment 1 : First start out by mixing a 5 step value scale using only black. You will be controlling the darkness of your color by the amount of water you add to it, thereby making the color lighter as you add more water. Obviously you can do the same with all of your colors and therefore make a value scale with any color which you have. Don’t fuss about making perfect squares of color, just play around on some scrap paper with the different types of values which can be created. If you get too much water mixed with your color take some toilet paper and daub it out until it is more pure again.
Now that you’ve created some value scales with one color, we will move onto making value scales with two colors. Pick two two colors (three if you wish to include white) and practice making some 5 toned value scales. For instance you could go from green to yellow, deep red to orange to yellow, or violet to blue to light blue (by adding white). Once you’ve found a value scale which can be easily replicated and is pleasurable to the eye it’s time to move on to assignment 2!
Assignment 2: Now that you’ve played around with some basic vale scales it’s time to jump into the first assignment which is to create a watercolor portrait of a person ( I know, we move fast dont we?) Before we get into this assignment it is important to remember that we do not have time to make finished pieces, so we just need to jump into each assignment and move forward. For this assignment you need to learn how to see value shapes and paint them. For more tutorials and exercises in drawing feel free to check out the drawing section of my other site Painting-Course.Com.
First lets start with what value shapes are. Simply put, values (the darkness or lightness of how the shadows fall on an object) determine the way we see the everything. With painting we want to be able to copy (or sometimes exaggerate for our own desires) value shapes which can be read by a viewer.
Commonly we see different value scales quite frequenlty in vector graphic imagery such as the image below.
For this assignment you will be working from one of the following images which can all be found here.
And I want you to try and copy the photograph as closely as possible using the same colors you created in your monochromatic value scale. If you can’t see the value scales clearly then squint as much as you can and you’ll begin to see that the world breaks down into simple shapes quite quickly. If you don’t get it, or want to recap this method then check out this video.
Nice, now you can see the value shapes better. Now it’s time to jump into your watercolor portrait.
Here’s some more inspiration to check out.
If you have time try some of these exercises out during the week, and further investigate different types of contrast in painting.
Cold Warm Contrast:
In this type of contrast we are looking at the perceived temperature of a color. These should be pretty straightforward to everyone. In class when I ask about which colors are warm and which colors are cool I’ll generally get the following responses.
Green – Cool
Blue – Cold
Violet – Cool
So how can we use these differences in perceived temperature to our advantage? Well, the easiest way to begin to depict the differences in Cool/Warm Contrast can be seen in many landscape paintings. When one looks at a landscape we will notice that things in the far distance take on more of a cool bluish tone (this was first observed by Da Vinci who named this phenomena Atmospheric Perspective). So it is fair to say that cooler colors tend to recede into the distance, while warmer colors want to push to the front in space. In this painting by Corot we can see this in action. Notice how the cool colors near the horizon recede into the distance while the warm orange tones of the ground naturally seem closer to us. The same can also be seen in the Van Gogh painting as well.
But once again, this rule not only can apply to landscape paintings to achieve a sense of depth. It can also be used in figurative works much in the same way as Contrast of Value to direct the viewers eye to certain places. In the image below by Odd Nerdrum we can see how Contrast of Warm and Cool colors makes the figures stand out against their background, but also if we look really closely at the flesh we can also see a lot of warm vs cold happening in shadows vs light areas of value as well.
Assignment: Mix up six different colors both of which are examining the ideas of cold and warm colors. For instance Orange, Red, and Yellow for warm, and Green, Blue, and Violet for Cool. Then create an inverted city landscape where the cool colors are in the foreground, and the warm colors are in the background. This will create an immediate sense of tension (something we convered in Gestalt Principles of Design) and create an interesting dynamic. If this sounds too hard for you to grasp you can take a look at how a third grader interpreted this assignment. If a third grader can do it, so can you.
In this case we are looking at how complimentary colors (colors opposite one another on the color wheel) activate elements in a composition and create a contrast. If you recall during the Color Wheel for Painting lesson we extensively went into exactly what complimentary colors are and how they work. Complimentary contrast is often also used to create a sense of contrast and highlight certain objects. It is also many times used to give a painting an overall feeling of harmony as our eyes naturally see the compliment to every color which we perceive (see Properties of Color for further reference).
In the painting below by Monet we see how complimentary contrast can bring life to a painting and can be used effectively to convey harmony across the entire composition.
Notice the interplay between all the complimentary colors in this painting. The blues happily reside right next to the oranges, and the shadows are filled with both violets as well as yellows. But it is important to note that there are numerous shades of each color, and that much experimentation had to be done to get the colors to harmonize. When working with complimentary contrast it is important to understand that one must also manipulate the value of a color when laid beside another in order for the painting to be read correctly. Simply put, this means that the painting should still work as a drawing if a black and white photo were taken of it.
Assignment:Using some source material (either a photo or a sketch) make a portrait painting of a person in which the subject is the complimentary color to the background. Remember as always, the places you want to highlight the most should have the most intense complimentary contrast in the whole composition. You can take a look at this self portrait (after he cut off his ear) by Van Gogh for inspiration.
Now things start to get a bit trickier as we delve into types of contrast which aren’t as clearly defined as the previous ones. Simultaneous contrast identified by Michel Eugène Chevreul refers to the manner in which the colors of two different objects affect each other. The effect is more noticeable when shared between objects of complementary color.
In the image here, the two inner rectangles are exactly the same shade of grey, but the upper one appears to be a lighter grey than the lower one due to the background provided by the outer rectangles.
This is a different concept from contrast, which by itself refers to one object’s difference in color and luminance compared to its surroundings or background. Basically it is important to always remember that whatever color surrounds the color you wish to depict will change how we perceive that color. For this reason you’ll see that many artist palettes are grey which gives the least amount of interference with the color which is being mixed.
Assignment: Using Simultaneous Contrast create an abstract composition where the same color is used in different places throughout the composition but appears to be a different color when viewed overall. This can be achieived by first working on a large “background” of your painting first, and then painting in small sections of the same color in different selected small sections of the work. You can look at the painting below and examine how the same color has vastly different qualities based upon the colors surrounding it.
Contrast of Saturation:
This refers to the contrast present when more than one instance of a saturated color are present. We previously covered saturation and intensity, and by using Contrast by Saturation we can achieve an effect which gives us contrast based solely on the saturation (brightness) of a color. In the image below we can see how different colors change when their saturation is changed. Generally this can be easily achieved by adding more white, black, or a colors compliment to the color which is being mixed.
In the following painting by Matisse we can see how he used different saturations of the same color to achieve contrast. The pipe is the most saturated color in the painting, and also the place where our eye goes first. By doing so he has led our eye in the right direction by using a more intense/saturated color up against less saturated colors.
Assignment: Start with a very saturated color and make it less saturated by adding black in successive amounts, then do the same with white and make five different variations of tints. Then mix it with it’s compliment and make five different variations of the color. Using this single color as a base make a painting based upon a sketch or photo while thinking about which area should be the most important (saturated) and which areas should be the least.
Contrast by Extension:
Think of this as seeing the overall color theme for an entire work first. Looking at the painting by Breugel below we can see that the painting has an overall feeling of being very blue and cold. While the animals as well as the people are contrasted against the larger environment. Essentially you are contrasting a large amount of canvas against a very small portion. In order to achieve this effect you must also use other types of contrast which we have already covered such as Warm/Cool Contrast , Or Complimentary Contrast. The idea being that large areas will effect smaller areas, and if these smaller areas are in high contrast against the larger whole a balance can be achieved and the smaller subjects can be seen as more important.
Assignment: For this assignment you will first create a landscape which has an overall color theme to it (cool colors work best such as green and blue) and then you will create a figure to put into this environment which is out of tune with the larger color theme. You will notice immediately that the figure stands out in a very extreme fashion to the point where it may not seem like it should fit. If this is the case you can lower the intensity of the figure by lowering the saturation of the color.
Today we will start by looking at the work of Paul Cezanne and his use of Atmospheric perspective.
Paul Cézanne was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th-century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century.
So how does this relate to what we will be studying today? Today we will be looking at and practicing atmospheric perspective.
Aerial perspective or atmospheric perspective refers to the effect the atmosphere has on the appearance of an object as it is viewed from a distance. As the distance between an object and a viewer increases, the contrast between the object and its background decreases, and the contrast of any markings or details within the object also decreases. So remember when we were playing around with contrast yesterday, well now we have a continuation of the importance of contrast in the form of how contrast decreases as we go further back in space. To put it really simply, stuff gets blurrier as it goes into the distance. In the selected Cezanne paintings above we can see how he used atmospheric perspective to achieve a sense of depth (even though Cezanne was all about flattening the picture plane). Check out the Da Vinci below, that’s the Virgin on the Rocks and is also a great example of how atmospheric perspective works.
Your task will be to work from these landscape photos to create a work which exhibits the qualities of atmospheric perspective. Since we are working with watercolors the key will be to water down the colors more as they fade into the distance, and use higher concentration of colors for the foreground. Remember that these principles can be applied to any painting and that the key isn’t necessarily only to learn how to use this principle in landscape painting, but also in other situation where you want the background to recede. Here in Prague, Czech Republic it is often easy to see atmospheric perspective at play in the hills west of Prague where we will go in a few weeks for some Plein Air painting. So consdier this some preparatory work.
John James Audubon was a French-American ornithologist, naturalist, and painter. He was notable for his expansive studies to document all types of American birds and for his detailed illustrations that depicted the birds in their natural habitats.
This part of the class we will forget about the broad brushstrokes to create entire landscapes and change our perspective to studying foliage and painting it with watercolors. Immediately your senses will shift from focusing on a photograph and you should see the benefits and complexities of working with a real leaves, twigs and branches in front of you.
But how to start? For this section we will not be doing any preliminary drawings, but instead will be working directly on our paper with watercolors. So as to not go into the task without any background lets first look at some common ways to construct leaves and trees with watercolors.
The key to painting foliage with watercolors is to combine both your wet in wet (that means adding wet paint to an already wet surface) and wet on dry techniques. As we have already covered you must have a good understanding of the value scale which you are using in the painting before you even start painting. I would suggest limiting your palette to about 8 variations of yellow to green to to dark green/blue.
First we will be working with just generating some brush strokes, and from there we will begin constructing a tree starting with bright lemon yellow (don’t worry if you don’t have the exact color, any bright yellow will work). With your yellow start with the top left of your tree, then before this yellow is dry you will be adding just a little bit of light yellow-green to form the bottom of your tree.
Remember to leave some holes for the sky to peek through.
Then, while this is all still wet start dabbing a few deeper colors into the tree to represent some darker values.
Go darker, and darker towards blue-green at the bottom right hand of the tree.
Then let everything dry (you’ll notice that watercolors get lighter as they dry)
Put in a few last dashes on leaf shadows ( LESS IS MORE! )
Then mix up some ochre/brown and make a dab for the trunk making sure that the trunk vanishes under the leaves and doesn’t appear to be on top of them.
Now that we have created this tree we will be moving on to the foliage in front of us on our desks (If it’s nice outside we can also go to Riegrovy Sady park and paint there. ) Using the same methods (working from light to dark) you will be creating a watercolor painting of your plant, leaves, stems, twigs, and flowers. For this you should make a very VERY light contour line sketch detailing the different values present.
Josef Albers was a German-born American artist and educator whose work, both in Europe and in the United States, formed the basis of some of the most influential and far-reaching art education programs of the 20th century.
Today we will start exploring acrylic paint. Acrylic paint is a creation of the 20th century (1934) and after it was seen to be very durable as a artist material it was extended for use in homes and industrial products (mainly as latex paint) by the 1950s.
For this exercise each of you will be assigned an artist. But you are not going to be copying the artist’s works, but instead the colors they use. As we have already established a wide variety of colors can be created just from red, yellow, blue, and white. To the best of your ability you will be “color matching” the tones used in famous paintings in small squares on your canvas (done in a style similar to Josef Albers if you wish, or some other abstract/non representational painting). I’ll be helping you individually and see exactly what colors you should be mixing. This can be a very difficult task and frustrating as all colors will yield slightly differing results (using Pthalo Blue as opposed to Ultramarine Blue for instance) but the goal is to get these colors matched as closely as possible.
This part’s artist is Alyssa Monks (1977- present)
“When I began painting the human body, I was obsessed with it and needed to create as much realism as possible. I chased realism until it began to unravel and deconstruct itself,” Alyssa states, “I am exploring the possibility and potential where representational painting and abstraction meet – if both can coexist in the same moment.”
For this section we will be focusing on learning to mix flesh tones and using this towards creating portraits of one another.
For creating flesh tones we will be mixing our cadmium red with yellow to begin. Once we’ve achived a strong orange we will then take a little bit of blue which will push the color towards brown. Using this as a base we can go down the value scale by adding more blue and red to the mix, and going up the value scale by adding our mixture to titanium white (note that we are not adding white to our mixture!)
Once we have gained a good understanding how to make our value scale of flesh tones we will procede with a drawing of another student. This should be a loose sketch which can be built upon and easily navigated with the different value shapes. Upon completing our drawings we will then begin painting each others portraits using both local, and non local color as well as the palette we have just learned how to mix of flesh tones. These are still basically extended sketches and shouldn’t be treated as finished works. We are going for broad shapes of value, and not small details. Use large brushes and mix loads of paint to work with.
This Part’s artist is Hieronymus Bosch (1450 – 1516)
Hieronymus Bosch was an Early Netherlandish painter. His work is known for its use of fantastic imagery to illustrate moral and religious concepts and narratives.
Now we’ve finally arrived at what is beyond a shadow of a doubt one of the oldest and most respected artist mediums. Oil paint. The medium itself has taken on an almost mythic quality with many students frequently being scared of using it as it isn’t exactly cheap, and this fear can cause many students to tighten up and produce awkward paintings (sometimes awkward paintings are kind of nice too but anyway) . For this reason we are not going into any new imagery yet with oil paint. We’re just going to start playing around with it as a new medium and use it in conjunction with some of the older paintings which we produced.
For the first exercise we will be looking back on some of our value scales as well as our form paintings we made with acrylics, and we will be using oil paint to glaze on top of these paintings. I’ll have some of my own glaze medium which I’ve mixed that you can try out, but just as with acrylic glazing our goal is to make our glazes as clear and seamless as possible with the smallest amount of streaks.
Once we are finished with experimenting with glazing on our older paintings and exercises we will be repainting our acrylic portraits. Not on top of the old portraits, but creating a new painting in oils based upon our old portrait done in acrylics.
This Part’s artist focuses on the work of Chardin (1699 – 1779)
Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin was an 18th-century French painter. He is considered a master of still life, and is also noted for his genre paintings which depict kitchen maids, children, and domestic activities.
This part consists of two steps. One which will be done in acrylics, and the second in oils. A still life will be set up in front of you to paint. First we will be creating underpaintings in acrylics with Burnt Umber. Once our underpainting is established we will continue in acrlylics working on our highlights with burnt umber and white. Once this is dry we will proceed to oil paints which we will use to glaze our underpaintings. Once our glaze has been applied we will then continue to add highlights and deeper shadows as well as color with more opaque colors. This method is a bastardization of the “7 layer Flemish Method” which is often taught. However since we don’t have the time to wait three days in between each of the layers the bulk of the underpainting will be made in acrylics and then finished with oils. In the gallery below you can see the steps which are common to 7 Layer Flemish method of painting and how it would progress if you used only oil paints.
Underpaintings are commonly done in oils with a mixture of burnt umber or burnt sienna and paint thinner. One the underpainting is established oils will be used in both an opaque as well as a transparent manner to finish the painting further.
You can see in these two paintings the difference between creating a still life underpainting, and the finished piece.
The artist for today should be looked at before class as today we will be going on a trip to do some painting outside.
George Inness (May 1, 1825 – August 3, 1894) was an influential American landscape painter. His work was influenced, in turn, by that of the old masters, the Hudson River school, the Barbizon school, and, finally, by the theology of Emanuel Swedenborg, whose spiritualism found vivid expression in the work of Inness’ maturity. Often called “the father of American landscape painting”
Today we will be meeting at the school at 9 like normal. From here we will each grab our easels and then walk to Hlavni Nadrazi where we will be taking a train to Cernosice (a 20 minute train ride from Prague. 61Kc round trip) to paint outdoors. Be prepared to paint! Feel free to use the medium, or a combination of any mediums which you are comfortable with. I’ll be meeting with each of you individually throughout the day, and we will be having lunch in Cernosice. This class does not have two parts, but the entire class will be devoted to painting outdoors.
Predevelopment & Research
My work for this assignment is actually also a final piece in a series of my previous work, and it is actually their culmination – it is what these previous works were supposed to represent. From the start I wished to create a piece of light-art, but also with a mix of a kinetic scultpure or object. I wished to combine these two elements to create a visual instrument that is interactive.
In this respect, I was influenced largely by the works of Olaffur Eliasson, who although is not
creating very similar object is very stemmed in the experience itself. He works a lot with
geometrical shapes, and the properties of objects themselves. He creates his art by playing with
forms and light in order to create stunning experiences. It is hard to comment on his direct work process though, as he employs a studio full of people who help him complete his amazing works.
I also enjoyed the works of a young american artist, Joshua Kirsch who creates interactive lightart/kinetic objects.
His works, particuarly Concentricity 96 as seen above have inspired me, although the basic shape of my piece was created long ago before I found him. He works with quite advanced mechanics and electronics, standard of which I could not replicate, but anyhow seeing his work I decided that my work should definitely be interactive.
The previous works that this final piece is a culmination of are two objects, one is a small copper jewelry piece, which I call Rotator 1. Its about 10cm in diameter, and it already reflects the basic shape of my future work.
Later, I was able to work with some larger metal plates, and so I decided that I could make my work bigger, perhaps prepare a skeleton for further work. The Rotator 2 already was about 1,25m in diameter and made of cor-ten metal. However the whole structure was too heavy. I would not be able to get it moving, and even if so it would be quite dangerous with this mass of metal
Statement of Intent
In my project I will research several artist and techniques in order to create an object that is both visual and interactive. This piece will be a light/kinetic sculpture with a variety of possible uses – as aninstallation piece/projection area/or a music visualisation. Foremostly
though I like to describe it as a ‘visual instrument’.
It will be made out of wood, I also need a suitable motor and around 3
meters of LED light strips.
The final production will be in the form of photodocumentation and video.
This project has involved a lot of drawing, directly or indirectly. Sketching and drawing were at the center, although it wasn’t usually on paper, but on the woodpieces themselves that would finally be cut.
I enjoyed working on this project a lot because it combined a wide variety of techniques and led me to discover and learn more.
Sketches & Development
I wished for my piece to be interactive and rotating, so I had several
constrains that I need to solve or get around. The first was finding a
suitable motor that would be powerful enough to rotate my piece, yet
not too powerful to work with.
The solution came quite quickly with the discovery of an old washing
And so, the very first challenge was removing it from the box.
The motor needed to be plugged in! Luckily I was able to configure
the original cord of the washing machine.
And use it to plug the motor into power directly.
With the motor prepared, I now knew how should I continue with my
production. The motor was a primary constraint, as everything would
stem from it. There were several important things that would be built
on it – the rotating power connectors that would power the LED lights
on the ends and a systém of attaching the whole piece. Next came the
First, were the ‘wings’. Their size and shape was calculated to be
exact, and to have about 20cm of space in separation.
In further preparation, the whole shapes was drawn onto a board.
The wings are cut and put into the prepared shape.
Next were the middle pieces that neatly fall into place.
The middle pieces would need to be connected together strongly with
wooden circles and glue.
Adding the central parts to hold the structure.
The rotation is achieved.
Gluing process continues.
In the end only one screw was enough to hold the wings, even when
The base is done. Down you can see the two wooden plates that will
hold the structure on the end of the motor with several screws.
Standard and ‘Shuriken’ mode
The most complicated element is probably the power connection. It
will be led through cables that will touch the rotating rod. On the rod
there will be strips of tape that will both hold and insulate two metal
strips. The curved ends of the woodpieces will be filled with wire that
will touch the metal strips. Cables will lead from the metal strips
( under them ) and connect to the added rotating structure, as they
rotate together with the rod.
Adding the metal strips.
Time for the paint-job.
Paintjob is done. Next : sticking the LED strips. They already came
with 3M tape on the other side, so they were ready to go.
The connection travels through the wooden pieces through the insulated metal
plates and onwards through cables that rotate with the structure.
The connection travels through the wooden pieces through the insulated metal
plates and onwards through cables that rotate with the structure.
The rotating power connectors are finished.
Time to solder the cables to the LED strips. Only one of the strips had
the cables pre-attached.