VP 2

1953, Robert Rauschenberg “Erased De Kooning Drawing”
“My choices consist in choosing what questions to ask”

cage quote
Cage: Mushroom Haiku/Lecture on Nothing
Cage: Norton Lectures
What is a concept?
What makes something art?

What functions can art have?
Smithson/Holt “Swamp”
Smithson, Hotel Palenque
(Text and Video, video is bootleg though, not original quality. obviously)

marcel readymades


John Baldassari, I Will Not Make Any More Boring Art
Sentences on Conceptual Art (1968)
Sol Lewitt

1) Conceptual Artists are mystics rather than rationalists. They leap to conclusions that logic cannot reach.
2) Rational judgments repeat rational judgments.
3) Illogical judgments lead to new experience.
4) Formal art is essentially rational.
5) Irrational thoughts should be followed absolutely and logically.
6) If the artist changes his mind midway through the execution of the piece he compromises the result and repeats past results.
7) The artist’s will is secondary to the process he initiates from idea to completion. His willfulness may only be ego.
8) When words such as painting and sculpture are used, they connote a whole tradition and imply a consequent acceptance of this tradition, thus placing limitations on the artist who would be reluctant to make art that goes beyond the limitations.
9) The concept and idea are different. The former implies a general direction while the latter is the component. Ideas implement the concept.
10) Ideas alone can be works of art; they are in a chain of development that may eventually find some form. All ideas need not be made physical.
11) Ideas do not necessarily proceed in logical order. They may set one off in unexpected directions but an idea must necessarily be completed in the mind before the next one is formed.
12) For each work of art that becomes physical there are many variations that do not.
13) A work of art may be understood as a conductor from the artists’ mind to the viewers. But it may never reach the viewer, or it may never leave the artists’ mind.
14) The words of one artist to another may induce a chain of ideas, if they share the same concept.
15) Since no form is intrinsically superior to another, the artist may use any form, from an expression of words (written or spoken) to physical reality, equally.
16) If words are used, and they proceed from ideas about art, then they are art and not literature, numbers are not mathematics.
17) All ideas are art if they are concerned with art and fall within the conventions of art.
18) One usually understands the art of the past by applying the conventions of the present thus misunderstanding the art of the past.
19) The conventions of art are altered by works of art.
20) Successful art changes our understanding of the conventions by altering our perceptions.
21) Perception of ideas leads to new ideas.
22) The artist cannot imagine his art, and cannot perceive it until it is complete.
23) One artist may misperceive (understand it differently from the artist) a work of art but still be set off in his own chain of thought by that misconstruing.
24) Perception is subjective.
25) The artist may not necessarily understand his own art. His perception is neither better nor worse than that of others.
26) An artist may perceive the art of others better than his own.
27) The concept of a work of art may involve the matter of the piece or the process in which it is made.
28) Once the idea of the piece is established in the artist’s mind and the final form is decided, the process is carried out blindly. There are many side effects that the artist cannot imagine. These may be used as ideas for new works.
29) The process is mechanical and should not be tampered with. It should run its course.
30) There are many elements involved in a work of art. The most important are the most obvious.
31) If an artist uses the same form in a group of works and changes the material, one would assume the artist’s concept involved the material.
32) Banal ideas cannot be rescued by beautiful execution.
33) It is difficult to bungle a good idea.
34) When an artist learns his craft too well he makes slick art.
35) These sentences comment on art, but are not ar </p> NOTES

* Reprinted from Art-Language, Vol. 1, No. 1 (1969).

Le Witt


Chris Burden, 1972,Shoot

beuys 1

Josef Beuys, 1974 I Like America and America Likes Me


Vito Acconci, Following Piece

and Seedbed



Bruce Nauman “Walking Around the Studio in an Exaggerated Manner”




Yoko Ono Cut Piece


Yves Klein Anthropometry of the Blue Epoch


Allan Kaprow, Yard, Happening(s)

Philosophical Theory and Sources.

Existentialism: Simone de Beauvoir, Jean-Paul Sartre, Albert Camus, Franz Kafka, Søren Kierkegaard,Friedrich Nietzsche

Structuralism: Ferdinand de Saussure (pre-structuralist linguist, Prague and Moscow Schools of Linguistics along with Jakobson), Roman Jakobson (linguist), Claude Levi-Strauss (anthropologist), Jacques Lacan (psychoanalyst), Michel Foucault (historian), Roland Barthes (literary critic), Maurice Merleau-Ponty (phenomenoligist),Louis Althusser (Marxist theory)

Post-Structuralism: Jacques Derrida, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guatari

A Splattering of Vanity

dog tea
Surrealism:Impressions de la Haute Mongolie-Hommage a Raymond Roussel


Letterism : Isidore Isou

Performance/ Body Art (a brief history) contains graphic content, beware

Situationist International

Vienna Aktionists also highly graphic and violent

Art & Language

Systems Art

Fluxus: Collection

The Feminist Film Movement

bueys 33
*I Love America and America Loves Me

Dennis Oppenheim

Smithson/Holt “Swamp”
Smithson, Hotel Palenque
(Text and Video, video is bootleg though, not original quality. obviously)

Hans Haacke:
Real Time Social System
and experimental structures

Yvonne Rainer, a movement in herself


did anyone notice how many of these people find their roots in modern music practice???

see Time lecture above and check out
Pauline Oliveros

along with La Monte Young, John Cage, Yoko Ono, Nam June Paik, and Fluxus in general (if you haven’t already)
how many ways are these people related? who else was hanging around?

bas jan alder

(Bas Jan Alder, I’m Too Sad To Tell You)
Yves Klein, Leap into the Void
Keith Boadwee, Leap Into the Yard

Time, Procedure, and Notation







Jackson Mac Lowe, sound poet


The Black Tarantula Crossword Gathas





previous to Beethoven’s time (1770-1827) people notated music without volume and articulation indications:


specificity, as an issue for communication

Earle Brown, Composer





Laban Notation for Human Movement



Cornelius Cardew, Composer, Designer, Critic

Scratch Orchestra

(new version)






movement, time, concept, relationship

Ludo Mich, outlaw



What Does the Word “Rhythm” Mean?

palentological time

What is TIME?
and how does it move?
is it a line? a circle?
and what is it used for?

and how is this movement perceived?

and to what extent are time’s movements universal,
or to what extent are they our own personal,
or our various cultures’ constructions
and how does this affect our art making?



how can the light recorded on the photographic plate during an exposure be considered a record of time?

Is it possible to relate our personal frames of reference
with respect to time,
with the vast orders of magnitude existing across time and space?


Orders of magnitude (time)
Factor (s) Multiple Symbol Definition Comparative examples & common units Orders of magnitude
10−44 tP Planck time is the unit of time of the natural units system known as Planck units. Planck time = \sqrt{\hbar G/c^5}\approx 5.4 \times 10^{-44} \text{ s}. 10−44 s
10−24 1 yoctosecond ys[1] Yoctosecond, (yocto- + second), is one quadrillionth (in the long scale) or one septillionth (in the short scale) of a second. 0.3 ys: mean life of the W and Z bosons.[2][3][a]
0.5 ys: time for top quark decay, according to the Standard Model.
1 ys: time taken for a quark to emit a gluon.
23 ys: half-life of 7H.
1 ys and less, 10 ys, 100 ys
10−21 1 zeptosecond zs Zeptosecond, (zepto- + second), is one sextillionth of one second (short scale). 7 zs: half-life of helium-9’s outer neutron in the second nuclear halo.
17 zs: approximate period of electromagnetic radiation at the boundary between gamma rays and X-rays.
300 zs: approximate typical cycle time of X-rays, on the boundary between hard and soft X-rays.
500 zs: current resolution of tools used to measure speed of chemical bonding[4]
1 zs, 10 zs, 100 zs
10−18 1 attosecond as 12 attoseconds: shortest measured period of time.[5] 1 as, 10 as, 100 as
10−15 1 femtosecond fs cycle time for 390 nanometre light, transition from visible light to ultraviolet 1 fs, 10 fs, 100 fs
10−12 1 picosecond ps 1 ps: half-life of a bottom quark
4 ps: Time to execute one machine cycle by an IBM Silicon-Germanium transistor
1 ps, 10 ps, 100 ps
10−9 1 nanosecond ns 1 ns: Time to execute one machine cycle by a 1GHz microprocessor
1 ns: Light travels 12 inches (30 cm)
1 ns, 10 ns, 100 ns
10−6 1 microsecond µs sometimes also abbreviated µsec
1 µs: Time to execute one machine cycle by an Intel 80186 microprocessor
4–16 µs: Time to execute one machine cycle by a 1960s minicomputer
1 µs, 10 µs, 100 µs
10−3 1 millisecond ms 4–8 ms: typical seek time for a computer hard disk
50–80 ms: Blink of an eye
150–300 ms: Human reflex response to visual stimuli
1 ms, 10 ms, 100 ms
10−2 1 centisecond cs
100 1 second s 1 s: 9,192,631,770 periods of the radiation corresponding to the transition between the two hyperfine levels of the ground state of the cesium-133 atom.[6]
60 s: 1 minute
1 s, 10 s, 100 s
103 1 kilosecond
(16.7 minutes)
ks 3.6 ks: 3600 s or 1 hour
86.4 ks: 86 400 s or 1 day
604.8 ks: 1 week
103 s, 104 s, 105 s
106 1 megasecond
(11.6 days)
Ms month = 2.6 x 106 s
year = 31.6 Ms = 107.50 s
106 s, 107 s, 108 s
109 1 gigasecond
(32 years)
Gs century = 3.16 Gs ≈ 3.16 × 109 s
millennium = 31.6 Gs ≈ 3.16 × 1010 s
109 s, 1010 s, 1011 s
1012 1 terasecond
(32 000 years)
Ts eon = 31.6 Ts ≈ 3.16 × 1013 s 1012 s, 1013 s, 1014 s
1015 1 petasecond
(32 million years)
Ps aeon = 31.6 Ps ≈ 3.16 × 1016 s 1015 s, 1016 s, 1017 s
1018 1 exasecond
(32 billion years)
Es 0.43 Es ≈ the approximate age of the Universe 1018 s, 1019 s, 1020 s
1021 1 zettasecond
(32 trillion years)
Zs 1021 s, 1022 s, 1023 s
1024 1 yottasecond
(32 quadrillion years)
Ys 1024 s, 1025 s, 1026 s and more
Orders of magnitude (time)
Factor (a) Multiple common units orders of magnitude
10−50 Planck time, the shortest physically meaningful interval of time ≈ 1.71 × 10−50 a 10−50 a
10−24 1 yoctoannum 1 ya and less, 10 ya, 100 ya
10−21 1 zeptoannum 1 za, 10 za, 100 za
10−18 1 attoannum 1 aa, 10 aa, 100 aa
10−15 1 femtoannum 1 fa, 10 fa, 100 fa
10−12 1 picoannum 1 pa, 10 pa, 100 pa
10−9 1 nanoannum 1 second = 3.17 × 10-8 a ≈ 10-7.50 a 1 na, 10 na, 100 na
10−6 1 microannum 1 minute = 1.90 × 10-6 a
1 hour = 1.40 × 10-4 a
1 ua, 10 ua, 100 ua
10−3 1 milliannum 1 day = 2.73 × 10-3 a
1 week = 1.91 × 10-2 a
1 ma, 10 ma, 100 ma
100 1 annum 1 average year = 1 annum (= 365.24219 SI days)
decade = 10 anna
century = 100 anna
1 a, 10 a, 100 a
103 1 kiloannum millennium = 1000 anna 103 a, 104 a, 105 a
106 1 megaannum epoch = 1,000,000 anna 106 a, 107 a, 108 a
109 1 gigaannum aeon = 1,000,000,000 anna
13.7 Ga = 1.37×1010 a ≈ 13.7 billion years, the approximate age of the Universe
109 a, 1010 a, 1011 a
1012 1 teraannum 1012 a, 1013 a, 1014 a
1015 1 petaannum 1015 a, 1016 a, 1017 a
1018 1 exaannum 1018 a, 1019 a, 1020 a
1021 1 zettaannum 1021 a, 1022 a, 1023 a
1024 1 yottaannum 1024 a, 1025 a, 1026 and more

The pages linked in the right-hand column contain lists of times that are of the same order of magnitude (power of ten).

Rows in the table represent increasing powers of a thousand (3 orders of magnitude).

Conversion from year to second is year × 31 557 600 using the Julian year.

Conversion from log10 year to log10 second is approximately log10 year + 7.50. Example conversion; 1 year = 100 year = 100 + 7.50 seconds = 100.50 + 7s = 3.16 * 107s.

(the clock of the long now will keep time on a 10,000 year cycle
this is the first prototype,
and is on exhibit in the London Science Museum…
incidentally, how do you feel about this as an art piece?)

Clock of the Long Now

and what about this silly Pink Floyd thing?

what art forms organize time?
what use time? and how?

((Here is a film/sound composition
or is it a light/music composition as an example,
but what is it that makes it a composition?
and how is this “composition” articulated
(how is it made, what instructions are used to create it?)
What is being organized in what media?
hint: it has to do with the subject of this seminar))

and what about Change Ringing? How does this ancient practice relate time and space? How does it structure time and why was this method of organizing time developed? What are the relationships here between the time structure created and the materials being employed to create it? How does this relate to Algorithmic Composition?

guide to the church bells of prague (incidental trivia related to the above topic)